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Scanning electron microscope of lung tissue

Diagnosis and management of hospital-acquired pneumonia in older adults Subscription

Hospital‑acquired pneumonia increases the length of in-patient hospital stay and is associated with high mortality rates, particularly in older people. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to know how to diagnose and manage the condition, and be cognisant of the gaps in the evidence base.

3D scan showing brain haemorrhage stroke

Stroke: classification and diagnosisSubscription

In light of the many pressures currently facing the NHS, as well as an ever increasing ageing population, pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be aware of the risk factors for stroke, its classification and diagnosis.

Bronchiectasis, light photomicrograph showing dilated and distorted bronchus containing pus

Bronchiectasis: diagnosis, treatment and managementSubscription

Bronchiectasis is a common chronic disease where the airways of the lungs become abnormally widened. Patients present with recurrent cough, sputum production and are at risk of respiratory tract infections. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to be aware of the latest management strategies.

Pharmacogenomics concept

Pharmacogenomics: an overviewSubscription

With the NHS working towards the integration of personalised medicine, in particular, aiming for whole-genome sequencing to be standard for specific conditions by 2020, it is important for pharmacists and healthcare professionals to be aware of the principles of pharmacogenomics and its evolving application into clinical practice.

pregnant woman diabetes finger prick lancet blood ss 17

Managing diabetes in women during preconception and pregnancySubscription

Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and to the developing foetus. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to be able to support and educate women who are planning pregnancy and those who are already pregnant to manage their diabetes.

Clinician check a man's foot using a mirror

The diabetic footSubscription

Diabetes-related foot problems are common, and negatively impact patients’ quality of life, so it is important that pharmacists are aware of symptoms and the relevant care pathways for these patients to ensure they receive the best care and education regarding how to manage their condition. Produced in partnership with RB.

Micrograph of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL)

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes: diagnosis, assessment and management

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the term for a range of conditions caused by a build-up of fat in the liver. The condition is thought to be highly prevalent; however, the dearth of symptoms during early disease and the lack of a specific diagnostic test make it difficult to detect and manage at an early stage. This presents a considerable challenge for healthcare professionals.

SEM of activated platelets

Heparin-induced thrombocytopeniaSubscription

Heparin is widely used for thromboprophylaxis or as a treatment in many clinical situations, however, it can cause serious adverse effects. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune-mediated adverse drug reaction, is associated with high morbidity and mortality if undiagnosed.

Xray showing chronic oedema in the lower limb

Chronic oedema: treatment and the impact of prescribed medicinesSubscription

Early diagnosis of lower limb oedema is crucial to prevent early oedema becoming chronic. Pharmacists and other healthcare professionals are ideally placed to identify patients on certain medicines at higher risk of oedema, and should be aware of signs of chronic oedema when assessing patients to allow for prompt referral.

Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of tuberculosis (TB) bacteria infecting macrophages

Fluoroquinolones for treating tuberculosisSubscription

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health and socioeconomic challenge. The duration of current anti-TB therapies, the adverse effects of certain anti-TB drugs and the growing problem of drug-resistant TB on an international scale mean that it is imperative for new, effective and safe treatment regimens to be developed. Fluoroquinolones are a class of drugs that have been used in the treatment of TB for several decades. This article provides an overview of the current treatment ...

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Patient suffering from aphasia aphasia during speech therapy session

How to support people with aphasia with medicines optimisationSubscription

Aphasia is a communication disability, most often caused by stroke, which occurs when the language centres of the brain are damaged. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be aware of how the communication needs of people with aphasia vary based on the severity of the condition, and how they can best provide support with medicines optimisation.

Dentures

Advising denture wearers in community pharmacySubscription

Community pharmacy is ideally placed to provide first-line advice and support for patients experiencing issues with their dentures. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be aware of the common problems patients encounter and be able to recommend products that may be beneficial to relieve any symptoms they are experiencing. 

Senior woman speaks to a pharmacist about menopause

Treatment options for menopausal symptomsSubscription

Pharmacists and healthcare professionals can provide a patient-centred approach to advising women about the menopause, and provide robust information about the risks and benefits of menopause hormone treatment that will allow patients to make an informed choice about how to relieve their symptoms.

Pharmacist speaks to patient on Champix smoking cessation therapy

Smoking cessation services: how nicotine replacement therapy and counselling through pharmacy can support adherence and quittingSubscription

Smoking is the primary cause of preventable ill health and death in the UK. Pharmacists and pharmacy teams are well placed to provide stop-smoking services, which are cost-effective interventions to help people give up smoking.

Pharmacist and patient

Pharmacy Technician's Guide - Dry eye disease: the patient journey and further resources

Although some patients may experience some symptoms of dry eye only occasionally, dry eye disease is a chronic condition, so it is important for patients to understand the implications.

woman applying  lens eye ss 17

Pharmacy Technician's Guide - Dry eye disease: treatment advice for lens wearers

People who wear lenses are at risk of dry eyes. Pharmacists should give specific advice to lens wearers when recommending over-the-counter products because some cannot be used with lenses.

man applying eye drops ss 17

Pharmacy Technician's Guide - Advice for applying dry eye treatments

In order to get the most from eye treatments, it is important to apply them effectively and store them correctly.

blepharitis inflammation eyelid wi 17

Pharmacy Technician's Guide - Blepharitis: managing eyelid inflammation

Pharmacists should advise patients to maintain good lid hygiene to manage blepharitis. Antibiotic drops or ointments, or low-dose antibiotic courses should be considered if hygiene changes are ineffective.

single dose ss 17

Pharmacy Technician's Guide - Dry eye disease: preservative versus preservative-free products

Many over-the-counter products for dry eye disease contain preservatives. These can help make products last longer once opened and mean products can be available in multi-dose packaging.

punctal plug eye anatomy pj 17

Pharmacy Technician's Guide - Treating more severe cases of dry eye disease

Specialist intervention may be required for patients who have severe dry eye disease, or if the condition does not respond to artificial tears or other treatment.

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