Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis

By Annett Blochberger, DipClinPharm, MRPharmS, and Shelley Jones, DipClinPharm, MRPharmS

neurons (kts

Tremor, bradykinesia, hypokinesia and rigidity are well known features of Parkinson’s disease, but patients also experience troublesome non-motor symptoms, such as depression, pain and insomnia 


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder that results from the loss of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra. The cause of this neuronal damage remains largely unknown, but it is believed to be associated with both genetic and environmental factors.

PD is characterised by motor and non-motor symptoms. The main motor features are rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia and hypokinesia. Non-motor symptoms include: neuropsychiatric conditions (eg, dementia, depression and hallucinations); autonomic disturbances (eg, constipation, postural hypotension); sleep disorders; and sensory symptoms (such as pain).


Annett Blochberger is lead pharmacist for neurosciences at St George’s Healthcare NHS Trust and Shelley Jones is clinical pharmacy team leader for neurosciences at King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. 

E: [email protected]

Citation: Clinical Pharmacist URI: 11090776

Have your say

For commenting, please login or register as a user and agree to our Community Guidelines. You will be re-directed back to this page where you will have the ability to comment.

Recommended from Pharmaceutical Press

  • Handbook of Drug Administration via Enteral Feeding Tubes

    All you need to know about prescribing or administering drugs via enteral feeding tubes. Over 400 drug monographs as well as facts to inform clinical decision making.

  • Stockley's Drug Interactions

    Now in its twelfth edition, Stockley’s Drug Interactions is still the most comprehensive and authoritative international source of drug interaction information.

  • Physicochemical Principles of Pharmacy

    This established textbook covers every aspect of drug properties from the design of dosage forms to their delivery by all routes to sites of action in the body.

  • Pharmaceutical Toxicology

    Explains the methodology and requirements of pre-clinical safety assessments of new medicines. Includes registration requirements and pharmacovigilance.

  • Pharmacy Case Studies

    Understand the application of therapeutics in clinical practice with Pharmacy Case Studies. This book helps you to demonstrate the knowledge gained during your studies.


Search an extensive range of the world’s most trusted resources

Powered by MedicinesComplete

Supplementary information

Jobs you might like

  • London

  • London (Central), London (Greater)

Newsletter Sign-up

Want to keep up with the latest news, comment and CPD articles in pharmacy and science? Subscribe to our free alerts.

Наш важный сайт со статьями про ежедневная уборка цена.
дженерик левитра купить