Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical features and diagnosis

By Andrew Husband, MSc, and Adam Todd, PhD, MRPharmS


For older men, benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms such as polyuria, incomplete bladder emptying, urinary urgency and, in severe cases, urinary retention


The prostate is a doughnut-shaped gland that is located below the bladder, encircling the male urethra. Its function is to secrete prostatic fluid, which constitutes about 25% of semen. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) — a condition in which the prostate gland is enlarged — affects around 50% of men over the age of 60 years.

BPH can be asymptomatic, but for many men it is associated with lower
urinary tract symptoms. Symptoms can be associated with difficulties
storing urine (eg, urinary urgency and polyuria) or voiding the bladder (eg,
urinary hesitancy and poor urinary flow). Investigations for men with BPH
include measurement of serum prostate specific antigen, digital rectal
examination and prostate ultrasound or biopsy.

Andrew Husband is principal lecturer for pharmacy practice and clinical therapeutics and Adam Todd is senior lecturer for pharmacy practice and clinical therapeutics, both at the University of Sunderland.

E: [email protected]


Citation: Clinical Pharmacist URI: 11094166

Readers' comments (1)

  • I was reading the pathophysiology section. Under the tissue remodelling part it indicates that:
    During BPH, from the balance of apoptosis and proliferation, proliferation is favoured. This can be explained by the increased expression of B1 and Bcl-2.

    I was browsing online and I found out that the activation of B1 and Bcl-2 both inhibit proliferation and stimulate apoptosis.

    This has confused me. I do not understand how the increased expression and hence increased activation of B1 and Bcl-2 favour proliferation. Is it not the other way round.

    I might have got the wrong findings. Please could you kindly correct me where I am going wrong

    Unsuitable or offensive? Report this comment

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