With the NHS working towards the integration of personalised medicine, in particular, aiming for whole-genome sequencing to be standard for specific conditions by 2020, it is important for pharmacists and healthcare professionals to be aware of the principles of pharmacogenomics and its evolving application into clinical practice.
Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and to the developing foetus. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to be able to support and educate women who are planning pregnancy and those who are already pregnant to manage their diabetes.
Diabetes-related foot problems are common, and negatively impact patients’ quality of life, so it is important that pharmacists are aware of symptoms and the relevant care pathways for these patients to ensure they receive the best care and education regarding how to manage their condition. Produced in partnership with RB.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the term for a range of conditions caused by a build-up of fat in the liver. The condition is thought to be highly prevalent; however, the dearth of symptoms during early disease and the lack of a specific diagnostic test make it difficult to detect and manage at an early stage. This presents a considerable challenge for healthcare professionals.
Heparin is widely used for thromboprophylaxis or as a treatment in many clinical situations, however, it can cause serious adverse effects. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune-mediated adverse drug reaction, is associated with high morbidity and mortality if undiagnosed.
Early diagnosis of lower limb oedema is crucial to prevent early oedema becoming chronic. Pharmacists and other healthcare professionals are ideally placed to identify patients on certain medicines at higher risk of oedema, and should be aware of signs of chronic oedema when assessing patients to allow for prompt referral.
Fluoroquinolones for treating tuberculosisSubscription
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health and socioeconomic challenge. The duration of current anti-TB therapies, the adverse effects of certain anti-TB drugs and the growing problem of drug-resistant TB on an international scale mean that it is imperative for new, effective and safe treatment regimens to be developed. Fluoroquinolones are a class of drugs that have been used in the treatment of TB for several decades. This article provides an overview of the current treatment ...
Pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be able to recognise the symptoms of depression in people who use their services and direct them towards accessing treatment. This article examines how a diagnosis of depression is made, the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments available, specific considerations for different patient groups, self-management approaches, and the role of the pharmacy team in managing and supporting patients who have symptoms of depression.
Although multiple myeloma is currently regarded as being incurable in the majority of patients, the outlook for patients diagnosed with the condition has improved markedly over the last 40 years, with survival rates quadrupling. Significant advances in both treatment and supportive therapies have contributed to these improved outcomes and are discussed in this article.
There are around 12,000 cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) each year in the UK and during 1999 to 2007, deaths from CDI peaked at around 4,000 per year. This article summarises diagnosis and management, as well as the current therapeutic options for CDI, including faecal microbiota transplant.
How to diagnose and manage Trichomonas vaginalisSubscription
Trichomonas vaginalis, also known as trichomoniasis, is a curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. The majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms, making diagnosis difficult. Therefore, appropriate treatment and prevention strategies are important to prevent its spread.
Understand how to advise on chronic-open angle glaucoma, a condition in which intraocular pressure can permanently damage the optic nerve and nerve fibre, leading to blindness if left untreated.
July 2017 saw publication of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society International Dry Eye Workshop report, an update to the 2007 report that became the reference for clinicians, researchers and industry on dry eye. Pharmacy is a frequent point of for patients with a dry eye condition. Pharmacists and pharmacy teams should therefore be aware of its changing definiton, causes, diagnosis and management.
Each person’s experience of mild cognitive impairment and dementia will be quite different. Pharmacists and pharmacy teams are well placed to assist in both the early identification of dementia, as well as to help patients manage their medicines.
More than two million people are affected by sight loss across the UK, which may impact on their ability to use and take their medicines correctly and safely. Here, the Royal National Institute of Blind People, Medicines Use and Safety team and Moorfields Eye Hospital provide advice and recommendations for pharmacy to provide appropriate support for people with sight loss.
Patients of all ages visit their pharmacy to seek advice on a variety of conditions affecting their feet, but some groups, including the young and active, people with diabetes and elderly patients, are at higher risk of developing common foot conditions. Produced in partnership with RB.
Around 500,000 print copies of the BNF and BNF for Children are distributed to healthcare professionals each year. A new app which combines BNF and BNF for Children content ensures the availability of drug information through a smart device.
Children may be exposed to potentially harmful excipients, essential components of drug formulations, through unlicensed and off-label use of adult medicines. Excipient exposure should be minimised, although a medicine containing a problem excipient may be indicated, but only after a careful risk–benefit assessment.
Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 4% of all new cancer diagnoses. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals are ideally placed to offer advice to patients on the use of sunscreens to limit UV exposure, reducing their risk of developing melanoma.
Rashes in childrenSubscription
Rashes in children are common and may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, therefore, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation in order to make the appropriate diagnosis.