Hospital‑acquired pneumonia increases the length of in-patient hospital stay and is associated with high mortality rates, particularly in older people. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to know how to diagnose and manage the condition, and be cognisant of the gaps in the evidence base.
Stroke: classification and diagnosisSubscription
In light of the many pressures currently facing the NHS, as well as an ever increasing ageing population, pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be aware of the risk factors for stroke, its classification and diagnosis.
Bronchiectasis is a common chronic disease where the airways of the lungs become abnormally widened. Patients present with recurrent cough, sputum production and are at risk of respiratory tract infections. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to be aware of the latest management strategies.
Pharmacogenomics: an overviewSubscription
With the NHS working towards the integration of personalised medicine, in particular, aiming for whole-genome sequencing to be standard for specific conditions by 2020, it is important for pharmacists and healthcare professionals to be aware of the principles of pharmacogenomics and its evolving application into clinical practice.
Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and to the developing foetus. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to be able to support and educate women who are planning pregnancy and those who are already pregnant to manage their diabetes.
The diabetic footSubscription
Diabetes-related foot problems are common, and negatively impact patients’ quality of life, so it is important that pharmacists are aware of symptoms and the relevant care pathways for these patients to ensure they receive the best care and education regarding how to manage their condition. Produced in partnership with RB.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the term for a range of conditions caused by a build-up of fat in the liver. The condition is thought to be highly prevalent; however, the dearth of symptoms during early disease and the lack of a specific diagnostic test make it difficult to detect and manage at an early stage. This presents a considerable challenge for healthcare professionals.
Heparin is widely used for thromboprophylaxis or as a treatment in many clinical situations, however, it can cause serious adverse effects. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune-mediated adverse drug reaction, is associated with high morbidity and mortality if undiagnosed.
Early diagnosis of lower limb oedema is crucial to prevent early oedema becoming chronic. Pharmacists and other healthcare professionals are ideally placed to identify patients on certain medicines at higher risk of oedema, and should be aware of signs of chronic oedema when assessing patients to allow for prompt referral.
Fluoroquinolones for treating tuberculosisSubscription
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health and socioeconomic challenge. The duration of current anti-TB therapies, the adverse effects of certain anti-TB drugs and the growing problem of drug-resistant TB on an international scale mean that it is imperative for new, effective and safe treatment regimens to be developed. Fluoroquinolones are a class of drugs that have been used in the treatment of TB for several decades. This article provides an overview of the current treatment ...
In October 2017, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence published guidance to support health and social care professionals in recognising and responding to abuse and neglect in young people aged under 18 years. Pharmacists and pharmacy teams should be aware of their roles and responsibilities as outlined in this guidance.
Aphasia is a communication disability, most often caused by stroke, which occurs when the language centres of the brain are damaged. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be aware of how the communication needs of people with aphasia vary based on the severity of the condition, and how they can best provide support with medicines optimisation.
Advising denture wearers in community pharmacySubscription
Community pharmacy is ideally placed to provide first-line advice and support for patients experiencing issues with their dentures. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be aware of the common problems patients encounter and be able to recommend products that may be beneficial to relieve any symptoms they are experiencing.
Treatment options for menopausal symptomsSubscription
Pharmacists and healthcare professionals can provide a patient-centred approach to advising women about the menopause, and provide robust information about the risks and benefits of menopause hormone treatment that will allow patients to make an informed choice about how to relieve their symptoms.
Smoking cessation services: how nicotine replacement therapy and counselling through pharmacy can support adherence and quittingSubscription
Smoking is the primary cause of preventable ill health and death in the UK. Pharmacists and pharmacy teams are well placed to provide stop-smoking services, which are cost-effective interventions to help people give up smoking.
Although some patients may experience some symptoms of dry eye only occasionally, dry eye disease is a chronic condition, so it is important for patients to understand the implications.
People who wear lenses are at risk of dry eyes. Pharmacists should give specific advice to lens wearers when recommending over-the-counter products because some cannot be used with lenses.
In order to get the most from eye treatments, it is important to apply them effectively and store them correctly.
Pharmacists should advise patients to maintain good lid hygiene to manage blepharitis. Antibiotic drops or ointments, or low-dose antibiotic courses should be considered if hygiene changes are ineffective.
Many over-the-counter products for dry eye disease contain preservatives. These can help make products last longer once opened and mean products can be available in multi-dose packaging.