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Pharmacogenomics concept

Pharmacogenomics: an overview

With the NHS working towards the integration of personalised medicine, in particular, aiming for whole-genome sequencing to be standard for specific conditions by 2020, it is important for pharmacists and healthcare professionals to be aware of the principles of pharmacogenomics and its evolving application into clinical practice.

pregnant woman diabetes finger prick lancet blood ss 17

Managing diabetes in women during preconception and pregnancySubscription

Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and to the developing foetus. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to be able to support and educate women who are planning pregnancy and those who are already pregnant to manage their diabetes.

Clinician check a man's foot using a mirror

The diabetic foot

Diabetes-related foot problems are common, and negatively impact patients’ quality of life, so it is important that pharmacists are aware of symptoms and the relevant care pathways for these patients to ensure they receive the best care and education regarding how to manage their condition. Produced in partnership with RB.

Micrograph of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL)

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes: diagnosis, assessment and management

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the term for a range of conditions caused by a build-up of fat in the liver. The condition is thought to be highly prevalent; however, the dearth of symptoms during early disease and the lack of a specific diagnostic test make it difficult to detect and manage at an early stage. This presents a considerable challenge for healthcare professionals.

SEM of activated platelets

Heparin-induced thrombocytopeniaSubscription

Heparin is widely used for thromboprophylaxis or as a treatment in many clinical situations, however, it can cause serious adverse effects. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune-mediated adverse drug reaction, is associated with high morbidity and mortality if undiagnosed.

Xray showing chronic oedema in the lower limb

Chronic oedema: treatment and the impact of prescribed medicinesSubscription

Early diagnosis of lower limb oedema is crucial to prevent early oedema becoming chronic. Pharmacists and other healthcare professionals are ideally placed to identify patients on certain medicines at higher risk of oedema, and should be aware of signs of chronic oedema when assessing patients to allow for prompt referral.

Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of tuberculosis (TB) bacteria infecting macrophages

Fluoroquinolones for treating tuberculosisSubscription

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health and socioeconomic challenge. The duration of current anti-TB therapies, the adverse effects of certain anti-TB drugs and the growing problem of drug-resistant TB on an international scale mean that it is imperative for new, effective and safe treatment regimens to be developed. Fluoroquinolones are a class of drugs that have been used in the treatment of TB for several decades. This article provides an overview of the current treatment ...

Action of serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Depression in adults: recognition and management

Pharmacists and healthcare professionals should be able to recognise the symptoms of depression in people who use their services and direct them towards accessing treatment. This article examines how a diagnosis of depression is made, the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments available, specific considerations for different patient groups, self-management approaches, and the role of the pharmacy team in managing and supporting patients who have symptoms of depression.

Micrograph of multiple myeloma tumour cells (green) and bone cells (red) growing on a scaffold made of silk protein (purple), designed to resemble bone material

Multiple myeloma: pharmacological management

Although multiple myeloma is currently regarded as being incurable in the majority of patients, the outlook for patients diagnosed with the condition has improved markedly over the last 40 years, with survival rates quadrupling. Significant advances in both treatment and supportive therapies have contributed to these improved outcomes and are discussed in this article.

Micrograph of Clostridium difficile bacteria

Clostridium difficile: diagnosis and treatment update

There are around 12,000 cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) each year in the UK and during 1999 to 2007, deaths from CDI peaked at around 4,000 per year. This article summarises diagnosis and management, as well as the current therapeutic options for CDI, including faecal microbiota transplant.

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Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Trichomonas vaginalis parasite

How to diagnose and manage Trichomonas vaginalisSubscription

Trichomonas vaginalis, also known as trichomoniasis, is a curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. The majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms, making diagnosis difficult. Therefore, appropriate treatment and prevention strategies are important to prevent its spread.

3d anatomy of the eye

Chronic open-angle glaucoma: case study

Understand how to advise on chronic-open angle glaucoma, a condition in which intraocular pressure can permanently damage the optic nerve and nerve fibre, leading to blindness if left untreated.

Historical illustration of an eye

Evidence-based understanding of dry eye disease in pharmacy: overview of the TFOS DEWS II report

July 2017 saw publication of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society International Dry Eye Workshop report, an update to the 2007 report that became the reference for clinicians, researchers and industry on dry eye. Pharmacy is a frequent point of for patients with a dry eye condition. Pharmacists and pharmacy teams should therefore be aware of its changing definiton, causes, diagnosis and management.

Close up of elderly man holding cane

How pharmacy can provide patient-centred care for dementia patientsSubscription

Each person’s experience of mild cognitive impairment and dementia will be quite different. Pharmacists and pharmacy teams are well placed to assist in both the early identification of dementia, as well as to help patients manage their medicines.

Pharmacist explaining dispensing label to senior male patient

How to support patients with sight loss in pharmacy

More than two million people are affected by sight loss across the UK, which may impact on their ability to use and take their medicines correctly and safely. Here, the Royal National Institute of Blind People, Medicines Use and Safety team and Moorfields Eye Hospital provide advice and recommendations for pharmacy to provide appropriate support for people with sight loss.

Images of common foot conditions

Management and treatment options for common foot conditions

Patients of all ages visit their pharmacy to seek advice on a variety of conditions affecting their feet, but some groups, including the young and active, people with diabetes and elderly patients, are at higher risk of developing common foot conditions. Produced in partnership with RB.

Person using the new BNF app

How to use the new BNF and BNF for Children app

Around 500,000 print copies of the BNF and BNF for Children are distributed to healthcare professionals each year. A new app which combines BNF and BNF for Children content ensures the availability of drug information through a smart device.

Spoons of red, yellow and green medicine syrup

How to identify and manage ‘problem’ excipients in medicines for childrenSubscription

Children may be exposed to potentially harmful excipients, essential components of drug formulations, through unlicensed and off-label use of adult medicines. Excipient exposure should be minimised, although a medicine containing a problem excipient may be indicated, but only after a careful risk–benefit assessment.

Micrograph of melanoma

Melanoma: risk factors and advice on sunscreen useSubscription

Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 4% of all new cancer diagnoses. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals are ideally placed to offer advice to patients on the use of sunscreens to limit UV exposure, reducing their risk of developing melanoma.

Chickenpox rash close up

Rashes in childrenSubscription

Rashes in children are common and may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, therefore, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation in order to make the appropriate diagnosis.

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pharmacist receiving prescription J2 17

Implementing online fax technology in the pharmacy

Pharmacies deal with a large volume of patient prescriptions via fax on a daily basis. In order to provide good service and compete with other pharmacies effectively, staff members must be able to process prescriptions quickly and accurately, as well as resolve queries in a timely manner. Unfortunately, this can be a significant issue due to outdated and bulky fax technology that is prone to malfunction, security risks, and unnecessary expenses.

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